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Year: 2015
Country: France
SSA operations in France are shared by the French Air Force and the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES). The missions for French SSA activities are similar to U.S. military efforts, attempting to catalog all low Earth orbiting objects for collision and launch avoidance. The French do use...
Year: 2014
Country: France
France’s space agency, the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES), had a 2014 budget of €## billion (US$## billion), which represented a 5% increase over its 2013 budget of €## billion (US$## billion). These funds were divided between domestic projects and contributions to ESA. The CNES...
Year: 2008
GEO satellites provide coverage of a wide area from a relatively fixed position, making them ideal for broadcast applications to multiple downlink sites, as well as for networking services to widely dispersed corporate and government facilities. Video distribution, point-to-point video feeds, also...
Year: 2009
MSS provider Globalstar is developing its second-generation constellation to replace existing satellites that have had technical problems since early 2007. The problems have severely degraded its two-way voice and data services, leaving customers with only one-way communication. In March 2009, the...
Year: 2009
Providers of FSS have enjoyed considerable success in recent years due in large part to the international growth of applications such as high-definition (HD) television. From the beginning of 2007 through May 2009, the number of HD channels being transmitted via FSS or DTH satellites worldwide grew...
Year: 2009
GEO satellites provide a wide fixed coverage area, making them ideal for reaching a community of stationary antennas that do not need to track a moving object in space. The dominant providers of international fixed satellite services (FSS) are Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat, and Telesat. These four...
Year: 2010
The dominant providers of international fixed satellite services (FSS) are Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat, and Telesat. These four companies collectively own nearly half of all GEO commercial communications satellites (## satellites, or ##% of the total), and represented ##% of total FSS market revenues...
Year: 2011
Iridium’s LEO constellation of ## active and ## spare satellites relay signals to each other directly, unlike other systems that require multiple hops between space and the ground to send signals around the world. In June 2010, the company named France’s Thales Alenia Space as prime contractor...
Year: 2011
GEO satellites provide a wide fixed coverage area, making them ideal for sending one signal to a large number of stationary antennas. There were ## fixed satellite services (FSS) satellites in orbit during 2011, providing DTH video, satellite radio, broadband internet, broadcast video distribution,...
Year: 2009
Eight scientific satellites were launched in 2009, including ESA’s Herschel and Planck observatories. The observatories will be used to study the evolution of distant stars, observe the cosmic background radiation left over from the Big Bang, determine the total amount of normal and dark matter...
Topic: ISS
Year: 2005
The largest in-space platform ever constructed is the International Space Station (ISS). “Led by the United States, the ISS draws upon the scientific and technological resources of 16 nations: Canada, Japan, Russia, 11 nations of the European Space Agency [Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany,...
Year: 2010
Country: France
France has several communications and technology development satellites, including two SPIRALE spacecraft in HEO. These microsatellites launched in 2009 serve as demonstrators for missile-warning capabilities.
Topic: Satellites
Year: 2011
The national defense needs of many countries help to drive demand for satellite capacity. Armed forces and international peacekeeping organizations from across the globe lease capacity from various commercial satellite operators or acquire Earth imagery services from commercial companies. Military...
Year: 2011
Funding is a serious concern for government-supported remote sensing satellite endeavors. Europe’s Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program is facing difficulties because of the global economic climate, which is forcing many space programs around the world to cut costs. In...
Year: 2012
Many remote sensing satellites have dual military and civil or commercial purposes. India launched its indigenously developed radar imaging satellite, RISAT-1, in April 2012. The satellite will join RISAT-2 and will provide India with the ability to image features on the ground even if covered by...
Year: 2012
Weather satellites form another major segment of remote sensing satellites, typically operating in GEO or polar LEO orbits. These systems are primarily operated by national governments for forecasting near-term weather patterns. Delays and funding issues could endanger the robustness of some...
Year: 2012
Land imaging satellite performance is described using a variety of characteristics, including differences in spatial resolution (as measured by how many pixels compose an object), positional accuracies (as measured by the extent to which objects are represented accurately), and spectral...
Year: 2013
Dedicated and secure communications links are vital to defense agencies around the world. Increasing demand for capacity—particularly secure connectivity using non-commercial frequency bands—has driven the deployment of dedicated military communications satellites. The U.S. military buys a...
Year: 2013
Weather satellites are a major segment of remote sensing satellites. Most weather satellites are in GEO or polar LEO orbits and have traditionally been operated by national governments for near-term weather forecasting. However, austere government budgets have caused weather-focused agencies to...
Year: 2013
Collectively, land-imaging satellites—which are also known as Earth observation or remote sensing satellites—are systems used to observe, monitor, and track changes and developments on the Earth’s surface using a variety of optical or electronic imaging capabilities. Earth observation...

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