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Year: 2014
Country: Israel, Japan
Israel often works with other countries to cooperate in its space endeavors, whether civil, national security (or dual-use), or commercial. Its civil space organization, the Israel Space Agency (ISA), overseen by the Ministry of Science, Technology & Space, has had a reference annual budget of...
Year: 2010
In June 2010, Israel launched the OFEQ-9 reconnaissance satellite which joined ## others already in operation. China’s utilization of space for military purposes is even harder to gauge due to the country’s lack of transparency in its space programs. In 2010, the country launched ## Yaogan...
Topic: Satellites
Year: 2010
One classification of satellite is based not just on the spacecraft’s capabilities. Military satellites are generally characterized by the end users they are built to serve, not the type of service provided. Although they may perform the same functions as their non-defense counterparts, such as...
Year: 2012
Many remote sensing satellites have dual military and civil or commercial purposes. India launched its indigenously developed radar imaging satellite, RISAT-1, in April 2012. The satellite will join RISAT-2 and will provide India with the ability to image features on the ground even if covered by...
Year: 2013
Military-specific observation satellites can be used for reconnaissance or other intelligence-gathering purposes. The capabilities of remote sensing satellites can sometimes obscure whether or not they are being used for civilian or military applications.
Year: 2008
Country: Israel
Palmachim Air Force Base is an active Israeli Air Force base that also serves as a missile test range and launch site for Israel’s Shavit 1 launcher. The vehicle has been used exclusively to launch Israel’s Ofeq reconnaissance satellites, the mainstay of its space program. The first successful...
Year: 2008
Commercial space programs, like their government counterparts, continue to evolve around the world. As detailed in Space Products and Services, the more established programs in satellite communications and remote sensing are being joined by entrepreneurial space activities that provide excitement...
Year: 2005
Non-U.S. military estimates, which are for 2004, include the following countries: United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Israel. China’s budget includes both military and civil expenditures. Note that the estimate of China’s space budget is controversial. At a NASA...
Year: 2007
Military space spending among European countries in 2006 totaled $## billion (€## million), according to the European Space Policy Institute, a research institute founded and supported by European aerospace industry partners. For 2004, Euroconsult estimates non-U.S. space spending at $##...
Year: 2008
Country: Israel
Israel’s 2008 space budget was ## million Israeli new shekels (US$## million), roughly ##% of the country’s national budget of ## billion Israeli new shekels (US$## billion). Most of Israel’s space spending has focused on military applications such as the Ofeq spy satellites and the Shavit-1...
Year: 2009
Country: Israel
Civil space expenditures in Israel are modest, with an estimated expenditure of ## million New Israeli Shekels (US$## million) in 2009. Israel devotes most of its space spending to military space programs, with an annual budget of approximately ## million New Israeli Shekels (US$## million).
Year: 2009
The National Congress of Brazil’s 2010 Federal Budget authorizes ## million Brazilian reals (US$## million) for activities associated with the National Program of Space Activities, a small increase from the previous year. This authorization includes ## million reals (US$## million) for the...
Year: 2010
Country: Israel
Civil space expenditures in Israel are small, estimated at ## million New Israeli Shekels (US$## million) in 2010. The majority of Israel’s space spending is for military purposes, amounting to ## million New Israeli Shekels (US$## million) annually. This accounts for roughly ##% of the...
Year: 2011
Country: France, Israel, Italy
Israel’s civil space budget remains small, estimated at ## million New Israeli Shekels (NIS) (US$## million) in 2011. This accounts for roughly ##% of the country’s 2011 national budget of ## billion NIS (US$## billion).
Year: 2012
Country: Israel, Italy
In Israel, an increase in the civil space budget was approved in 2012, providing for a ## million New Israeli Shekel (NIS) (US$## million) civil space budget over a three-year period from 2012 to 2014. However, despite the approval, the full budget amount for 2012 has not been released by the...
Year: 2013
Country: Israel, Italy
In Israel, an increase in the civil space budget that was approved in 2012 was released by the Ministry of Finance for spending by the Israel Space Agency (ISA). This 2013 budget totaled ## million New Israeli Shekels (NIS) (US$## million). This represents a ##% increase over the estimated 2012 ISA...
Year: 2015
The Israel Space Agency (ISA) is in charge of civil and commercial space activities, which are estimated at US$## billion for 2015. It also coordinates closely with the Ministry of Defense. ISA has identified a near-term goal of increasing the size of the space economy in Israel to US$## billion in...
Topic: PISA
Year: 2011
An examination of PISA test scores among 14 countries active in space offers a more focused view of relative math and science literacy, which has implications for the numbers of STEM graduates each country produces and in turn the supply of STEM-skilled workers available for space-related...
Year: 2008
The economic impacts and human capital effects of global space activity are mutually reinforcing. Worldwide space activity is a driver of industry and commerce, both in economic sectors with a primary space linkage and in secondary and tertiary supporting industries. As space-related economic...
Year: 2009
As nations around the world increase investment in both space activity and space human capital infrastructure, traditional models of space education and workforce development are increasingly being supplemented by newer approaches. These approaches emphasize the potential for international space...

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