China’s launch rate in 2013 fell by ##% compared to the previous two years, when China set a national record for number of orbital launches. Of China’s ## orbital launch attempts in 2013, ## were successful and deployed a variety of military, civil, and crewed spacecraft.
Revenues from DTH television services comprised ##% of the commercial space products and services sector, and grew from $## billion in 2011 to $## billion in 2012. North American DTH providers DIRECTV and DISH Network continue to be the largest suppliers, with combined revenues of $## billion for 2012, a ##% increase from $## billion in 2011. Other DTH providers around the world generated the remaining $## billion in 2012 revenues.
Around the globe, many smaller nations—in economy or population size—are investing in space projects or programs. These emerging space states generally feature relatively small-scale investments in space applications linked to specific national socioeconomic development objectives. The exhibit for additional/emerging countries shows the most recent available yearly budget for civil space activities in selected emerging space states. Each country tends to feature a different focus in its space investment portfolio, so care must be taken in making generalizations.
The Chinese civil space budget is not published, and estimates of spending vary widely. In 2005, the vice administrator of the China National Space Administration (CNSA) stated that the Chinese space budget was US$## million. However, many analysts contend that annual Chinese civil space spending is in fact considerably higher, reaching as much as US$## billion. China has demonstrated dramatic space progress in the past decade, which likely can be linked to growing space expenditures through the CNSA.
The trend of globalization in space activity continues, with nations entering into agreements to use each other’s infrastructure and space assets. Two decades ago only the United States, the Soviet Union, Europe, and China regularly launched and deployed satellites and other missions to space. Today… This article is for subscribers. Please sign up for a…
China’s increasing participation in space continued in 2008 with the record high of ## orbital launches, exceeding its previous peak of ## orbital launches in 2007. These launches used China’s only operational vehicle family, the Long March (“Chang Zheng”, or CZ) series.
VSAT (very small aperture terminal) networks can be used by governments for coordinating electronic voting and telemedicine. Venezuela recently used the Gilat VSAT network in its 2004 elections. Across the globe in India, satellites enable a telemedicine network that connects rural hospitals with specialty centers in major cities to increase the quality of healthcare.
Satellite capabilities are enabling dependable voting mechanisms in governments around the world. An e-voting satellite network, such as Gilat’s VSAT network, consists of a satellite dish and modem at each polling site connected to a central hub. Each poll operates electronic voting machines, which are connected to the central hub database via these very small aperture terminal (VSAT) connections.