Fixed Satellite Service Orbits
Satellites have provided trunking for long-distance telephone service for decades. Most long-distance traffic is now routed over cable, avoiding the lag and other reductions in quality (such as echo) associated with satellite telephone calls. Areas or countries lacking terrestrial backbone still rely on satellite connectivity to the publicly-switched telephone network. Telephone companies or nations lease C-band or Ku-band transponders on GEO satellites. Telephony, along with broadcast television, discussed above, and data services are common FSS applications.
GEO satellites can allow a signal to be beamed over a wide fixed coverage area, with the potential to reach a third of the Earth’s surface. They are thus ideal for FSS operators, who often use them to send a single data stream to many stationary antennas in one or more continents. FSS satellites provide DTH video or internet services, corporate network connectivity, broadcast video distribution, and secure communications for the military. Of the ## total active satellites in 2012, ## are communications satellites.
GEO satellites can broadcast a signal to one-third of the Earth’s surface. They are ideal for FSS operators, who broadcast to antennas spread across several continents. Of the ## communications satellites active at the end of 2013, ## were located in GEO and were primarily used for FSS. The dominant players in satellite communications have been Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat, and Telesat. These four companies have expanded their respective fleets through construction and launch as well as consolidation and acquisition of competitors’ satellites.
The number of FSS satellites has grown tremendously over the past five years in response to increased demand. Deregulation of international markets has sparked the rise of new companies providing content to customers via satellite. Harmonization of digital transmission standards has helped manufacturers, allowing for economies of scale and more cost-effective distribution.
GEO satellites provide a wide fixed coverage area, making them ideal for sending one signal to a large number of stationary antennas. There were ## fixed satellite services (FSS) satellites in orbit during 2011, providing DTH video, satellite radio, broadband internet, broadcast video distribution, and corporate network connectivity. The dominant providers of international FSS are Intelsat (## satellites), SES (##), Eutelsat (##), and Telesat (##).
The dominant providers of international fixed satellite services (FSS) are Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat, and Telesat. These four companies collectively own nearly half of all GEO commercial communications satellites (## satellites, or ##% of the total), and represented ##% of total FSS market revenues in 2010. The remainder of the market is shared by dozens of smaller operators focused on specific services, regions, or individual countries.
GEO satellites provide a wide fixed coverage area, making them ideal for reaching a community of stationary antennas that do not need to track a moving object in space. The dominant providers of international fixed satellite services (FSS) are Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat, and Telesat. These four companies collectively own slightly more than half of all GEO commercial communications satellites, and represented ##% of total FSS market revenues in 2008.
GEO satellites provide coverage of a wide area from a relatively fixed position, making them ideal for broadcast applications to multiple downlink sites, as well as for networking services to widely dispersed corporate and government facilities. Video distribution, point-to-point video feeds, also known as “backhauls,” and Direct-To-Home (DTH) television services represented three-quarters of total satellite services revenues in 2007.