The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is at the core of the space industry—from the mathematicians and astronomers who analyze space to the engineers who design and build the launch vehicles that get us there. This workforce is enabled . . .
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The U.S. Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS or GPS) continues to be the only fully operational navigation constellation and therefore the most popular. GPS consists of ## active satellites in ## medium Earth orbit planes. According to the Department of Defense (DoD), “the fundamental concept of GPS is to use simultaneous distance measurements from ## satellites to compute the position and time of any receiver.” The GPS signal is available at no cost to users around the world and has spawned many commercial applications.
NASA’s future exploration plans include outposts on the Moon, though many of the details and specifications for these habitats are yet to be determined. According to NASA: “Astronauts will set up a lunar outpost — possibly near a south pole site called Shackleton Crater — where they’ll conduct scientific research, as well as test technologies and techniques for possible exploration of Mars and other destinations.”
Ground equipment was the largest growth sector of space infrastructure in 2007, increasing ##% over 2006. Revenue from ground equipment related to space operations is estimated at $## billion in 2007. This value is a projection based on the last five years of SIA ground equipment revenues.
Funding for the largest in-space platform, the International Space Station (ISS), is included under the government budgets of ISS partners. NASA, the largest contributor to the ISS, budgeted $## billion for the ISS in 2007, but actual expenditures were not available due to delays in the congressional budget process.[
Satellite manufacturing revenue increased ##% overall to an estimated $## billion. This growth was driven by a ##% growth in revenue for government payloads to $## billion. Despite the overall growth, revenue for commercial manufacturing actually fell ##% to $## billion. These numbers represent revenues from satellite payloads in the year they were launched, not necessarily when satellite manufacturers received revenue. The year 2007 saw the launch of ## satellites, ## of which were commercial.
Commercial launch industry revenue exhibited modest growth in 2007, increasing #% over 2006. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reports that the commercial launch vehicle industry generated $## billion in revenue in 2007, from ## launches, carrying ## payloads. Exhibit 1f shows commercial launch market share. Russia continues to launch the largest share of commercial payloads, slightly more than the U.S. and Europe combined.
Revenue in 2007 for space infrastructure, including launch vehicles, satellites, ground stations, in-space platforms, and infrastructure support industries totaled $## billion, an increase of ##% over 2006. Ground stations and equipment saw the greatest growth at approximately ##%. Space infrastructure revenue estimates are shown in Exhibit 1e. Government budgets include funding for infrastructure, but government expenditures are addressed separately in U.S. Government Space Budgets.
Military space spending among European countries in 2006 totaled $## billion (€## million), according to the European Space Policy Institute, a research institute founded and supported by European aerospace industry partners. For 2004, Euroconsult estimates non-U.S. space spending at $## billion. Countries included in this estimate are the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Israel. Data on international military space spending is generally held closely and difficult to find in public sources. Until better data becomes available, we will continue to use this 2004 figure as an estimate in our aggregated number.