2012


2012 – Galileo

Europe also has made strides in developing its PNT system, Galileo. A joint initiative between the European Commission (EC) and ESA, the Galileo constellation will consist of ## operational satellites…

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2012 – BeiDou

Since 2000, China has been building its own PNT system, known as BeiDou. In December 2011, the Chinese government announced that its initial services—location data and SMS messaging—commenced for users…

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2012 – GLONASS

After a 15-year hiatus, Russia’s GLONASS PNT system returned to fully operational status in 2011, re-establishing full global coverage. The GLONASS constellation was started by the Soviet Union in 1982…

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2012 – GPS

To many consumers, all satellite-based navigation is synonymous with the term “GPS,” but this acronym only refers to one specific network. The U.S. Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning…

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2012 – Bigelow Space Stations

In addition to the ISS and Chinese efforts, there are other plans, of varying degrees of maturity, for other space stations. Bigelow Aerospace has been developing inflatable module technology that…

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2012 – ISS

The ISS is the largest spacecraft currently in orbit, measuring 109 meters (358 feet) long, with a mass of almost 419,500 kilograms (925,000 pounds). The station was developed and is…

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2012 – U.S. Suborbital

A new aspect of space infrastructure is the development of suborbital reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). Unlike sounding rockets, these vehicles are designed to land intact and be flown again. Stimulated…

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2012 – Other Countries, Launch, Payload

In 2012, several smaller countries and organizations demonstrated their ability, or at least ambitions, to conduct an orbital space launch. The privately held Sea Launch company, which focuses on deploying…

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2012 – India Launch, Payload

In 2012, the Indian space program carried out ## launches, consistent with recent launch tempos for the Indian space program. India has worked to create and maintain an independent space…

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2012 – Japan Launch, Payload

Japan successfully conducted ## orbital launches in 2012. There are seven total HTV missions planned, launching roughly every year until 2016, after which the future of the HTV has yet…

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