Astronomers are laying the groundwork for a new generation of extraordinarily large observatories. The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) Telescope will be the world’s largest and most sensitive radio telescope ever built. The SKA takes its name from the combined size of the collecting area of the thousands of individual dishes that comprise it, making it far more sensitive than any existing radio telescope.
Dedicated and secure communications links are vital to defense agencies around the world. Increasing demand for capacity—particularly secure connectivity using non-commercial frequency bands—has driven the deployment of dedicated military communications satellites. The U.S. military buys a significant portion of its capacity from commercial operators such as Intelsat and SES. However, the United States also relies on military-specific systems such as the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) program, supplying dedicated communications to U.S. and allied military forces around the globe.
Global, dedicated, and secure communications networks are vital to governments, militaries, and agencies around the world. Increased demand for capacity—particularly secure connectivity using non-commercial frequency bands—continued to drive deployment of dedicated military communications satellite systems. The U.S. military bought significant capacity from commercial operators such as Intelsat and SES in 2014. However, the way the military buys the bandwidth has been criticized by commercial satellite communications services as expensive and outdated.
Around the globe, many smaller nations—in economy or population size—are investing in space projects or programs. These emerging space states generally feature relatively small-scale investments in space applications linked to specific national socioeconomic development objectives. The exhibit for additional/emerging countries shows the most recent available yearly budget for civil space activities in selected emerging space states. Each country tends to feature a different focus in its space investment portfolio, so care must be taken in making generalizations.
Around the globe, many smaller nations—whether in terms of economy or population size—are investing in space projects or programs. Exhibit 2cc shows the most recent available yearly budget for civil space activities in a number of selected emerging space states. Each of these countries tends to feature a different focus in its space investment portfolio, so care must be taken in making generalizations.
The number of STEM first-degree (bachelor’s equivalent) graduates in many space-relevant countries has increased in recent years. The disciplines included here are physical, biological, and computer science; engineering; and mathematics.
The TIMSS study also assesses mathematics and science knowledge and skills. Unlike PISA, which focuses on broader mathematical and scientific literacy of students nearing the end of compulsory education, TIMSS is designed to align broadly with the mathematics and science curricula in participating countries at the fourth and eighth grade (approximately 9- and 13-year-old) levels.
Trends in international primary and secondary STEM education can be compared across countries using two widely respected international exams. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) every three years, focuses on the capabilities of 15-year-old students in mathematics and science literacy.
Not all countries collect or distribute data on agency or industry employment on a regular basis. This makes it difficult to determine trends in the global space workforce outside of a few major groups. Exhibit 4x provides a snapshot of employment in a number of space agencies in 2013. This gives some measure of the approximate size of the space programs in these nations.
Trains are using satellite technology—such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT) receivers and communications—to provide a train’s precise position to the people who manage European railway systems. While a train’s movements and schedule might be generally well-known, the PNT reporting will allow for a train’s precise position to be reported to a rail traffic control center, using a combination of 3G/4G data and satellite-based broadband services.