Non-U.S. military estimates, which are for 2004, include the following countries: United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Israel. China’s budget includes both military and civil expenditures. Note that the estimate of China’s space budget is controversial. At a NASA budget hearing in April 2006, much of the discussion was about the possible size of China’s space program and its ability to complete its plans to land astronauts on the Moon in 2017.
Military space spending among European countries in 2006 totaled $## billion (€## million), according to the European Space Policy Institute, a research institute founded and supported by European aerospace industry partners. For 2004, Euroconsult estimates non-U.S. space spending at $## billion. Countries included in this estimate are the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Israel. Data on international military space spending is generally held closely and difficult to find in public sources. Until better data becomes available, we will continue to use this 2004 figure as an estimate in our aggregated number.
In Israel, an increase in the civil space budget was approved in 2012, providing for a ## million New Israeli Shekel (NIS) (US$## million) civil space budget over a three-year period from 2012 to 2014. However, despite the approval, the full budget amount for 2012 has not been released by the Ministry of Finance for spending.
In Israel, an increase in the civil space budget that was approved in 2012 was released by the Ministry of Finance for spending by the Israel Space Agency (ISA). This 2013 budget totaled ## million New Israeli Shekels (NIS) (US$## million). This represents a ##% increase over the estimated 2012 ISA budget of ## million NIS (US$## million).
The Israel Space Agency (ISA) is in charge of civil and commercial space activities, which are estimated at more than US$## billion per year. It also coordinates closely with…
Global government spending increased in 2017, totaling $## billion, up from $## billion in 2016…
There are more than 50 countries with space programs in all regions of the world. Although it is not possible to get detailed statistics on many of these groups from year to year, it is possible to gather estimates that give some indication of overall size. Exhibit 4w provides estimates of the size of the space workforce in a variety of national space agencies.
Science and engineering courses offered at the secondary school level are important for preparing students to pursue STEM degrees. Not only may students with more exposure be more likely to pursue a STEM degree upon reaching university, but research suggests that they are more likely to actually complete that degree.
The TIMSS study also assesses mathematics and science knowledge and skills. Unlike PISA, which focuses on broader mathematical and scientific literacy of students nearing the end of compulsory education, TIMSS is designed to align broadly with the mathematics and science curricula in participating countries at the fourth and eighth grade (approximately 9- and 13-year-old) levels.
Trends in international primary and secondary STEM education can be compared across countries using two widely respected international exams. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) every three years, focuses on the capabilities of 15-year-old students in mathematics and science literacy.