The Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), the primary organization responsible for space activities in Spain, received appropriations from Spain’s national budget of €## million (US$## million) in 2014, an increase of ##% over 2013 levels of €## million (US$## million). INTA also receives revenue from its own commercial operations, bringing its total income to more than ## million euros. Spain’s contribution to ESA is not funded through INTA, but through the Center for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI).
On a global level, government investment in space increased #% to $## billion. Because not all governments operate under the same fiscal cycle, space spending numbers were derived from the most recent budgetary information available for each country. As in previous years, the growth was not uniform, with some countries reducing the funding available for space activity, as shown below. The figures reported in the following country profiles are presented in both the local currency and U.S. dollars as of June 30 of the appropriate year.
During 2016, European companies noted and seized opportunities within the business of space situational awareness (SSA). Europe’s continued growing dependence on services provided by an orbiting space infrastructure and desire for high-resolution European-based SSA data are presenting openings for…
Total global government space budgets in 2016 were $## billion, a ##% decrease from $## billion in 2015.
Government space programs accounted for approximately $## billion in spending during 2013, representing ##% of the global space economy. Government investment in space decreased by ##% in 2013, contributing to a cumulative average annual growth rate of ##% between 2009 and 2013. The top-line figures, however, do not fully depict how some countries have significantly increased space spending while others have made cuts, as shown in Exhibit 2n. Because not all governments operate under the same fiscal cycle, international space spending numbers were derived from the most recent budgetary information available for each country. The figures reported in the following country profiles are presented in both the local currency and U.S. dollars as of June 30 of the appropriate year.
Data communications services include very small aperture terminal (VSAT) services, Internet backhaul, direct-to-home broadband, and mobile data.
The largest in-space platform ever constructed is the International Space Station (ISS). “Led by the United States, the ISS draws upon the scientific and technological resources of 16 nations: Canada, Japan, Russia, 11 nations of the European Space Agency [Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom], and Brazil,” according to NASA.
Land imaging satellite performance is described using a variety of characteristics, including differences in spatial resolution (as measured by how many pixels compose an object), positional accuracies (as measured by the extent to which objects are represented accurately), and spectral capabilities (as measured by wavelengths of light captured, including visible and beyond-visible spectra). High-resolution land imaging satellites have resolutions below 1 meter (3 feet) per pixel, allowing users to distinguish cars from trucks, for example.
Dedicated and secure communications links are vital to defense agencies around the world. Increasing demand for capacity—particularly secure connectivity using non-commercial frequency bands—has driven the deployment of dedicated military communications satellites. The U.S. military buys a significant portion of its capacity from commercial operators such as Intelsat and SES. However, the United States also relies on military-specific systems such as the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) program, supplying dedicated communications to U.S. and allied military forces around the globe.