Human Activities in Space

Space Stations


2012 – ISS

The ISS is the largest spacecraft currently in orbit, measuring 109 meters (358 feet) long, with a mass of almost 419,500 kilograms (925,000 pounds). The station was developed and is operated by an international partnership of NASA, Roscosmos, ESA, JAXA, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

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Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure – TSR 2012

Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure - TSR 2012 examines global human spaceflight operations to include the Chinese, and the US space stations, launch vehicles from all spacefaring nations, communications satellite constellations, PNT…

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2011 – ISS – Snapshot

The ISS provides a unique platform for humans where long-term scientific research and experiments can occur. The ISS is a project involving the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada, and 11 ESA member states. It is a research facility in LEO that can host a permanent crew of up to six people in its current configuration.

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2011 – China Space Stations – Snapshot

China made great strides in 2011 toward developing its own modular space station, through the successful launch of the Tiangong-1 laboratory and rendezvous and docking with an unmanned Shenzhou-8 space vehicle. Two more Shenzhou missions are expected to dock with the module in 2012, with at least one of the missions carrying a crew.

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2011 – Bigelow Space Station – Snapshot

In June 2009, Roscosmos informed the United States of its intention to develop an orbital research facility by the time the ISS is retired. This complex would be known as the Orbital Piloted Assembly and Experiment Complex (OPSEK). The Russian Multipurpose Laboratory Module and Node Module are expected to dock with the ISS in 2012, but whenever the decommissioning of the ISS occurs, Roscosmos intends to detach those modules to use as the basis for OPSEK.

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2011 – Russian Space Station – Snapshot

In June 2009, Roscosmos informed the United States of its intention to develop an orbital research facility by the time the ISS is retired. This complex would be known as the Orbital Piloted Assembly and Experiment Complex (OPSEK). The Russian Multipurpose Laboratory Module and Node Module are expected to dock with the ISS in 2012, but whenever the decommissioning of the ISS occurs, Roscosmos intends to detach those modules to use as the basis for OPSEK.

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Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure – TSR 2011

Infrastructure: Space Infrastructure - TSR 2011 examines global human spaceflight operations to include both the Chinese and US space stations, launch vehicles from all spacefaring nations, communications satellite constellations, PNT…

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2010 – China Space Stations – Snapshot

China is developing its own space station as the next phase of its human spaceflight program. The first module for this station was completed in 2010, with China planning to launch it in 2011. The module, Tiangong-1 (Chinese for “Heavenly Palace”), is undergoing testing and will be launched on a Chinese Long March 2F rocket.

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2010 – Bigelow Space Stations – Snapshot

Bigelow Aerospace has been working for several years to develop commercial orbital habitats using expandable modules. This approach, leveraging technology licensed from NASA, involves launching modules in a compact form and inflating them once in orbit, creating much larger volumes than would be possible with traditional metallic structures.

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