Infrastructure


Payload Launch

Launch vehicles come in a variety of sizes, configurations, and capabilities. One primary distinction lies between orbital and suborbital launchers. Suborbital vehicles carry their payloads outside of Earth’s atmosphere, but…

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2008 – Other Countries, Launch, Human

In 2006, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announced plans to develop a human-rated version of its proposed GSLV Mark 3 vehicle. The vehicle, whose maiden launch is proposed for 2015,…

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2009 – Other Countries, Launch, Human

In addition to government human spaceflight efforts, some companies are developing commercial systems for orbital human spaceflight. Several American companies have shown an interest in orbital human spaceflight to serve…

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2011 – Other Countries, Launch, Human

Other human spaceflight systems in development include Excalibur Almaz (EA), a private venture that plans to refurbish flight-proven Russian Almaz reusable space capsules and modules to transport astronauts and space…

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2012 – Other Countries, Launch, Human

Although Japan and India have both expressed interest in developing human spaceflight capabilities, neither has yet demonstrated strong commitment toward that goal. Japan is in early stage feasibility studies for…

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2013 – China Launch, Human

China continued steady development of its crewed space program in 2013 with the launch of the Shenzhou 10 mission. Shenzhou 10 carried three taikonauts into LEO and docked with the…

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2012 – China Launch, Human

In 2003, China became the third nation capable of human spaceflight, with the launch of the Shenzhou 5 mission. Since then, it has flown three additional missions, each one advancing Chinese…

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2011 – China Launch, Human

China is the only nation other than Russia to currently operate a human spaceflight system. In 2011, China placed its first modular space laboratory into orbit with the launch of…

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2010 – China Launch, Human

China has also indicated that it is starting preliminary studies of a super-heavy lift vehicle that would be able to conduct human missions to the Moon. Although the government has…

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2009 – China Launch, Human

There were no Chinese human spaceflight missions in 2009, one year after the third Chinese manned mission, Shenzhou 7. China is working on an orbiting laboratory, Tiangong-1, that is scheduled…

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