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2012


Touring India Using GPS and 3D Maps

The integration of GPS receivers in smartphones has resulted in a surge of travel and navigation applications that can be used to enhance a travel experience. A startup company called My…

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2012 – Suborbital Payload Launch

Virgin Galactic announced at the 2012 Farnborough Air Show that, in addition to providing a passenger service, it would be developing a low-cost satellite launcher using the WhiteKnightTwo carrier plane.…

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2012 – China Space Stations

China has a long-term and active project to develop a permanently crewed space station in LEO. The first phase of that project started in 2011 with the launch of an…

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2012 – QZSS

Japan is creating the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), consisting of ## or ## satellites in a quasi-zenith orbit, and ## satellites in GEO to be operated by JAXA. This network…

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2012 – IRNSS

The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) will include ## satellites providing coverage primarily for South Asia. Like the Japanese system, ## of the ## will be in non-equatorial GEO,…

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2012 – Galileo

Europe also has made strides in developing its PNT system, Galileo. A joint initiative between the European Commission (EC) and ESA, the Galileo constellation will consist of ## operational satellites…

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2012 – BeiDou

Since 2000, China has been building its own PNT system, known as BeiDou. In December 2011, the Chinese government announced that its initial services—location data and SMS messaging—commenced for users…

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2012 – GLONASS

After a 15-year hiatus, Russia’s GLONASS PNT system returned to fully operational status in 2011, re-establishing full global coverage. The GLONASS constellation was started by the Soviet Union in 1982…

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2012 – GPS

To many consumers, all satellite-based navigation is synonymous with the term “GPS,” but this acronym only refers to one specific network. The U.S. Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning…

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